# enable color support of ls and also add handy aliases
if [ -x /usr/bin/dircolors ]; then
test -r ~/.dircolors && eval “$(dircolors -b ~/.dircolors)” || eval “$(dircolors -b)”
alias ls=’ls –color=auto’
alias grep=’grep –color=auto’
alias fgrep=’fgrep –color=auto’
alias egrep=’egrep –color=auto’

alias l=’ls -CF’
alias ll=’ls -alhF’
alias la=’ls -A’
alias cp=’cp -iR’
alias df=’df -h’
alias v=’vim’
alias md=’mkdir’
alias rd=’rmdir’

# Add an “alert” alias for long running commands. Use like so: sleep 10; alert
alias alert=’notify-send –urgency=low -i “$([ $? = 0 ] && echo terminal || echo error)” “$(history|tail -n1|sed -e ‘\”s/^\s*[0-9]\+\s*//;s/[;&|]\s*alert$//’\”)”‘

# ~/.bashrc: executed by bash(1) for non-login shells.
# see /usr/share/doc/bash/examples/startup-files (in the package bash-doc)
# for examples

# If not running interactively, don't do anything
case $- in
    *i*) ;;
      *) return;;

# don't put duplicate lines or lines starting with space in the history.
# See bash(1) for more options

# append to the history file, don't overwrite it
shopt -s histappend

# for setting history length see HISTSIZE and HISTFILESIZE in bash(1)

# check the window size after each command and, if necessary,
# update the values of LINES and COLUMNS.
shopt -s checkwinsize

# If set, the pattern "**" used in a pathname expansion context will
# match all files and zero or more directories and subdirectories.
#shopt -s globstar

# make less more friendly for non-text input files, see lesspipe(1)
[ -x /usr/bin/lesspipe ] && eval "$(SHELL=/bin/sh lesspipe)"

# set variable identifying the chroot you work in (used in the prompt below)
if [ -z "${debian_chroot:-}" ] && [ -r /etc/debian_chroot ]; then
    debian_chroot=$(cat /etc/debian_chroot)

# set a fancy prompt (non-color, unless we know we "want" color)
case "$TERM" in
    xterm-color) color_prompt=yes;;

# uncomment for a colored prompt, if the terminal has the capability; turned
# off by default to not distract the user: the focus in a terminal window
# should be on the output of commands, not on the prompt

if [ -n "$force_color_prompt" ]; then
    if [ -x /usr/bin/tput ] && tput setaf 1 >&/dev/null; then
	# We have color support; assume it's compliant with Ecma-48
	# (ISO/IEC-6429). (Lack of such support is extremely rare, and such
	# a case would tend to support setf rather than setaf.)

if [ "$color_prompt" = yes ]; then
    PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\[\033[01;32m\]\u@\h\[\033[00m\]:\[\033[01;34m\]\w\[\033[00m\]\$ '
    PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\$ '
unset color_prompt force_color_prompt

# If this is an xterm set the title to user@host:dir
case "$TERM" in
    PS1="\[\e]0;${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h: \w\a\]$PS1"

# Alias definitions.
# You may want to put all your additions into a separate file like
# ~/.bash_aliases, instead of adding them here directly.
# See /usr/share/doc/bash-doc/examples in the bash-doc package.

if [ -f ~/.bash_aliases ]; then
    . ~/.bash_aliases

# enable programmable completion features (you don't need to enable
# this, if it's already enabled in /etc/bash.bashrc and /etc/profile
# sources /etc/bash.bashrc).
if ! shopt -oq posix; then
  if [ -f /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion ]; then
    . /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion
  elif [ -f /etc/bash_completion ]; then
    . /etc/bash_completion

An alias is simply a reference to a string, but it makes it possible to shorten a command (or set of commands) inclusive of any options for the command.

Why use aliases?

To save time. Programmers like to refer to themselves as a lazy bunch, but I prefer to think in terms of being efficient rather than lazy. By creating an alias you can save time on the command line. For instance, to view a list of the contents of a directory I like to use “ls -alhF” to generate a nice human readable list. I do this a lot when working from the command line, so it’s much easier to have a alias for this.

Creating aliases

Use the alias command to create your own aliases using the following general syntax: alias [-p] [name=”value”]. For example, to create an alias named ll that executes the command+options ls -alhF, you would execute the following:

alias ll="ls -alhF"

Using aliases

Using the ll alias created in the example above is as simple as typing:


Removing Aliases

Use the general syntax: unalias [-a] name(s). For Example, to remove the alias named ll execute the following:

unalias ll

My favorite aliases

# enable color support of ls and also add handy aliases
if [ -x /usr/bin/dircolors ]; then
    test -r ~/.dircolors && eval "$(dircolors -b ~/.dircolors)" || eval "$(dircolors -b)"
    alias ls='ls --color=auto'
    alias grep='grep --color=auto'
    alias fgrep='fgrep --color=auto'
    alias egrep='egrep --color=auto'

alias l="ls -CF"
alias ll="ls -alhF"
alias la="ls -A"
alias cp="cp -iR"
alias df="df -h"
alias v="vim"
alias md="mkdir"
alias rd="rmdir"

# Add an "alert" alias for long running commands.  Use like so: sleep 10; alert
alias alert='notify-send --urgency=low -i "$([ $? = 0 ] && echo terminal || echo error)" "$(history|tail -n1|sed -e '\''s/^\s*[0-9]\+\s*//;s/[;&|]\s*alert$//'\'')"'

Making aliases permanent (survive sessions and reboot)

edit the file /etc/bashrc for system wide aliases 
edit the file ~/.bashrc for user specific aliases

For macOS
create the file ~/.bash_profile and add this:
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
source ~/.bashrc

Simple command line options to backup a MySQL database:

  1. backup a database locally using mysqldump, date and time in the filename, and compression
    mysqldump -uUSERNAME -pPASSWORD DATABASE | gzip -9 > ~/$(date +%Y-%m-%d-%H%M)_intiotpa_stage.sql
  2. import compressed file back into database
    gunzip < ~/backups/FILENAME.sql.gz | mysql -uUSERNAME -pPASSWORD DATABASE